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Acne: definition, causes and symptoms

Generally one differentiates between the classical puberty acne and the late occurring acne . Pubertal acne develops in girls and boys primarily by the increasing production of male sex hormones (medical: androgens) in puberty. As the sebaceous glands are stimulated by this, more skin fat is produced, which accumulates and is difficult to clear. External features here are white nodules, which now and then have black dots, so-called blackheads (medical: Komedon) in the middle. When the white acne nodules become inflamed, pimples form with pus. The causes of late-onset acne can be the use of the pill, hormonal imbalances or medication.

Acne: treatment

A proper acne should always be examined first by a dermatologist. At the beginning there should always be a professional skin cleansing by a beautician. For daily use you should use antibacterial cleansing in the morning and in the evening. The dermatologist can prescribe supplements with antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide or vitamin A acid against pimples. The best is a personalized program for the patient, which is tailored to the skin type. It is also important that women do without oil-based make-up . Better are tinted creams from the pharmacy, for example, "acne-Fug" . If local therapy is not enough, tablets such as antibiotics or isotretinoin may be prescribed. The latter only under medical supervision. Acne scars can be alleviated. For superficial damage mechanical peelings help. Peels go deeper with fruit acid or trichloroacetic acid (TCS). Treatment with the Fraxel laser is particularly helpful: tiny lesions are shot into the skin. They stimulate the healing process, the tissue produces fresh collagen, and the scarred skin cells are repelled scaly. The result is very good. As a rule, five to six sessions are needed. In between, there must always be three to four weeks. To achieve an optimal result, the skin cycle must be taken into account: If you wear off your skin, you also have to give it time to renew itself. A session costs between 500 and 700 euros if the whole face is lasered. Caution should be taken when dermabrasion, so the grinding of the scars with a special instrument. Here is the risk of scarring again very large.

Acne: prevention and self-help

Acne can be prevented. Basically, it is important to strengthen his immune system, to eat balanced and healthy and to drink enough water (two to three liters daily). Sport is also important for general well-being and the skin benefits as well. In addition, you should wash the face twice daily with a mild, skin-friendly soap with a pH of about 6.5. Do not express pimples yourself, as the acne can get worse and scars can develop. If blackheads develop, it is better to have them treated by a professional beautician, as they can remove blemishes so that they do not even ignite. In addition, it makes sense to wash his hair more often and do not let them hang in the face. It is also important to protect your skin from too much heat, sunlight and cold. Sun has a short-term positive effect on acne and worsens it in the long term. For cosmetics such as sunscreen or moisturizer you should make sure that these are water-based, as fat or oil-containing preparations can clog the pores and promote acne.